glossary

Glossary


The simplyweight glossary will help you understand all the weight-related medical jargon!
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  • A:  
  • Abdomen:The part of the body between the diaphragm and pelvis, where all the digestive organs are situated.
  • Abdominal: Related to the abdomen.
  • Abdominal Visceral Fat:The fat found around the organs in the abdomen e.g. the small intestines.
  • Abs Diet: Combines nutrition & exercise (6 week plan). Emphasizes 12 power foods. Focuses on building muscles through strength training, aerobic exercises. 
  • Absorption:The absorbing of nutrients into the body from food passing through the digestive system.
  • ACE inhibitors:Angiotensin Converting Enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) are a class of drugs used in the treatment of various conditions including hypertension, heart failure, diabetic nephropathy etc.
  • ADA: American Diabetes Association (ADA) is a North American based association funds research to manage, cure and to prevent diabetes. It provides information for patients and educational resources for health care.
  • Addict:An individual who has an addiction. They are dependent on a substance and experience withdrawal symptoms if they are deprived of it.
  • Addiction:A condition where an individual is dependent on a substance and experiences withdrawal symptoms if they are deprived of it.
  • Adhesion: The sticking together of two different materials.This is usually seen in healing of tissue after injury or surgery. Adhesion after weight loss surgery can result in a blockage of the bowels. This may result in pain, bloatedness, nausea and vomiting. If you have any of these symptoms seek urgent help.
  • Adipokine:Chemical messengers released by fat tissue. They contain a number of different proteins which produce body fat.
  • Adiponectin:A hormone secreted by fat which helps control blood glucose levels.
  • Adipose Tissue: A Fat tissue which has the role of storing energy in the form of fat.
  • Adolescence:The years of puberty before reaching adulthood. Typically 13 to 19 years old.
  • Adrenal Insufficiency:A condition where the adrenal glands do not produce enough cortisol, or other adrenal hormones. Symptoms may include nausea, diarrhoea, fatigue and muscle weakness.
  • Adrenaline:A hormone secreted by the adrenal glands in response to stress and stimulates the autonomic nervous system, affecting factors such as increasing heart rate. Also known as epinephrine.
  • Adult-Onset diabetes: Also known as Type 2 Diabetes. People with Type 2 diabetes do not produce enough insulin to overcome insulin resistance. There are a number of reasons for insulin resistance and one of these may be due to being overweight. People who develop this condition or those who are not treated properly have excessive urination and feel thirsty. They should contact their doctor immediately.
  • Aerobic Exercise: Physical activity that aims to increase the need for oxygen, and improves/maintains fitness. Examples of aerobic exercise are running, dancing, swimming, etc.
  • Aerobic Respiration:A form of making energy using glucose and oxygen.
  • Alimentary: Pertaining to food, digestion or nourishment. Alimentary canal refers to the digestive tract including stomach and intestines.
  • Alimentary Limb: The is the part of the intestine which is attached to the newly created stomach pouch. Food passes through this limb. The digestive juices travel through the biliary limb and mix with the food in the common limb of the roux-en-y gastric bypass surgery. This prevents nutrients being absorbed, hence promoting weight loss.
  • Alpha Cell:These are a form of the Islet of Langerhans cells which are found in the pancreas. They produce the hormone glucagon.
  • Amenorrhoea:Lack of menstruation or an absence of period in a woman of a reproductive age.
  • Amino Acid:Organic compounds that proteins are composed of.
  • Amylase:A group of enzymes present in the saliva and pancreatic fluid which break starch down into simple sugars.
  • Anaemia: An abnormally low level of red blood cells or haemoglobin concentration in the body. Haemoglobin is found inside red blood cells, which help in carrying oxygen from the lungs to the tissues. Reduction in oxygen carrying capacity may result in tiredness and/or shortness of breath. Anaemia may be caused due to excess blood loss and due to poor nutrition.
  • Anaerobic Respiration:A form of making energy without oxygen.
  • Anaesthesia:A drug that stops sensation and pain to the area of the body that it is administered to.
  • Analgesia:The lack of pain while still conscious.
  • Analgesic:Drugs that relieve pain. Examples include Paracetemol, Aspirin, Ibuprofen and Tylenol.
  • Anastomosis:Connecting two parts of the intestines together.
  • Angina Pectoris:Chest pain caused by Ischemia (insufficient blood flow to the heart muscles).
  • Anorexia Nervosa:An eating condition where a false body image leads to the maintenance of an unhealthily low body weight in fear of becoming fat and viewing even a healthy weight as too heavy.
  • Anti-Diuretic:Drugs which can help prevent urination.
  • antidepressants:Pills prescribed to reduce depression by your doctor. Examples of these are prozac
  • Antihistamine: Medicine used to treat allergies and subdue the effects of histamines.
  • Antioxidant:A substance which subdues oxidation. Though they can be harmful in large doses, they are thought to protect cells from damage.
  • Anus:The opening at the end of the digestive tract where faeces is released from.
  • Aorta:The blood vessel connected to the left ventricle (lower chamber) of the heart which supplies oxygenated blood to other arteries to transport the blood around the body.
  • Apnoea: Apnoea or Apnea is complete cessation of breathing for at least 10 seconds. People with Obstructive Sleep Apnoea experience apnoea wherein they stop breathing intermittently throughout the night. They do not realise this and suffer from daytime sleepiness, tiredness and difficulty concentrating.
  • Appetiser: A small dish that is served before a meal also called starters. This is supposed to stimulate your appetite. Appetisers may be in the form of a piece of melon or a bowl of soup. Melon has high sugar and is a high glycaemic index(GI) food, which increases hunger.
  • Appetite:The desire to eat food.
  • Appetite Suppressant: Drugs which prevent feelings of hunger.
  • Arrhythmia:An irregular heartbeat. Arrhythmias in morbidly obese individuals can cause sudden deaths.
  • Arterial Blood Gas:A test in which levels of oxygen, levels of carbon dioxide and the pH are detected from a sample of blood taken from an artery.
  • Arteriosclerosis:The hardening of artery walls.
  • Artery:A muscular blood vessel which carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body.
  • Aspartame:A low-calorie, artificial sweetener.
  • Aspirin:An analgesic/painkiller which can lower fevers, decrease body aches, headaches and reduce inflammation.
  • Asthma:Asthma is a respiratory disorder in which allergens can cause the airways to tighten and become inflamed, making it difficult to breathe.
  • Asthmatic:An individual who suffers from asthma.
  • Atelectasis:When a lung is either partially or completely collapsed.
  • Atherosclerosis:A disease which affects blood vessels where fatty deposits build up on artery walls, preventing maximum blood flow.
  • Atkins diet: The Atkins diet is a low carbohydrate and high protein diet promoted by cardiologist Dr Robert Atkins. The rationale is to provide fewer carbohydrates so that the body breaks down fat and causes weight loss. Whilst fat is broken down ketones and ketoacids are produced which suppress appetite.
  • Atrial Fibrillation: This is a term used for an irregular and rapid contraction of the upper chambers of the heart (Atrium). This can lead to incomplete pumping of the blood from the heart, formation of blood clots eventually leading to stroke.
  • Atrium:An upper chamber of the heart where blood first enters before passing to the ventricles (the lower chambers).
  • Autoimmune Disease: A disease where the immune system becomes dysfunctional causing it to attack its own body. For example, in Diabetes Mellitus Type 1, the autoimmune system mistakenly attacks the beta cells of the pancreas, preventing the production of insulin.
  • Autonomic Nervous System:The part of the body that regulates function that cannot be consciously controlled. This includes heart rate and breathing rate.
  • B:  
  • Background retinopathy:This is a complication of the eye wherein some small blood vessels in the retina become blocked and fragile, causing leak of fluid and blood.
  • Band Defill:It is important that although a gastric band is restricting the stomach, it still feels comfortable. If it is too tight, an individual may experience discomfort, regurgitation, heartburn and find it difficult to swallow.
  • Band Erosion: A complication that can occur around two years after a lap band has been inserted. The lap band may cause a hole to form in the stomach. This may also lead to an infection and the formation of an abscess.
  • Band Fill: The band is filled using a syringe filled with sterile water. You will be asked to lay down flat on the couch and once the port is identified the needle is injected into the port site. To confirm that it is in the right place some fluid is taken out and once confirmed the sterile water is injected. This tightens the band. You will be asked to sit upright or stand and drink water to make sure you don't have problems with fluids. Some centres use a gastrograffin swallow under x-ray to check but this is recommended only if there are any concerns.
  • Band Slippage:A complication that can occur after lap band surgery. More of the stomach slips through the band, creating a larger food pouch which means the surgery is less effective.
  • Bariatric Bed:Beds which are designed for obese individuals.
  • Bariatric Centre:A place with healthcare professionals who are able to advise individuals on weight issues such as morbid obesity, and how they can aim for healthy weight loss.
  • Bariatric Surgery: Bariatric surgery, also known as weight loss surgery, refers to the operations designed to reduce weight (bariatric comes from the Greek word 'Baros'meaning pressure or weight). Operations may restrict the amount you are able to eat (restrictive operations such as the gastric band and sleeve gastrectomy) or both restrict the amount you can eat and reduce the amount you can absorb (gastric bypass). The term does not include procedures for surgical removal of body fat such as liposuction or abdominoplasty (tummy tuck)
  • Bariatrician:A doctor who is a specialist in the diagnosis and treatment of obesity.
  • Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR):The energy used to maintain vital bodily functions e.g. breathing.
  • Behavioural Therapy: Treatment that aims to change a person's behaviour through a range of different methods.
  • Beta Cell:These are a form of the Islet of Langerhans cells which are found in the pancreas. They produce the hormone insulin.
  • Beta-Blockers:A group of drugs that have a variety of uses and work by preventing the stimulation of certain hormone receptors. They can be used to lower heart rate, lower blood pressure and treat heart conditions such as angina.
  • Bicuspid Valve:This is a valve made up of two flaps between the atrium and ventricle on the left side of the heart. The mitral valve prevents backflow of blood, and it is also known as the mitral valve.
  • Biliary limb: Biliary limb is the portion of the intestine which drains the lower end of the excluded stomach in a Roux en Y bypass surgery. This limb consists of the divided stomach, the duodenum and upper small intestine. The biliary limb carries digestive juices and meets the alimentary limb, where digestion takes place.
  • Biliopancreatic Diversion:A malabsorptive weight loss surgery in which part of the stomach is removed, and some of the intestine is bypassed to prevent nutrient absorption.
  • Binge Eating:Uncontrollable consumption of food. It is an eating disorder, where a person overeats on a regular basis.
  • Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA):A method to roughly measure the fat and fat-free mass of the body.
  • Bipolar Disorder:A psychiatric disease where an individual experiences periods of depression and mania. It is also known as manic-depressive disorder.
  • Birth Control:Contraceptive methods e.g. the pill, to prevent a woman from becoming pregnant.
  • Bleed:The loss of blood due to a cut or injury.
  • Block: When something prevents the progress of something else happening
  • Blood Cholesterol:The concentration of cholesterol in the blood.
  • Blood Clot:When blood clumps together to produce its semi-solid form, it forms a blood clot. These can help prevent blood loss, but can also be dangerous if they block a blood vessel.
  • Blood Gas, Arterial (ABG): A blood test where the oxygen, carbon dioxide and acidity levels of a sample of blood are measured. Normal Ranges: pH (acidity levels) 7.35 to 7.45 Oxygen 80 to 100 mmHg Carbon Dioxide 35 to 45 mmHg.
  • Blood Glucose:Sugar in the blood. Glucose is incredibly important in that it is essential for respiration (the production of energy), without which we would die. However, abnormally high and low levels can result in negative effects.
  • Blood Glucose Meter:A device which measures the concentration of sugar in the blood.
  • Blood Pressure (BP):When the heart beats, blood is pumped out of the heart in to different parts of the body to give oxygen and energy. When the blood moves, it pushes against the blood vessels. The strength of this pushing is called blood pressure.
  • Blood Sugar:This is the amount of sugar in the blood, also known as blood glucose.
  • Blood Thinner:Medication that prevents blood clots from forming. Also known as anticoagulants. Examples include Warfarin and Heparin.
  • Blood Transfusion:Transferring blood from a donor to a recipient.
  • Blood Type Diet: A blood type diet is a nutrition plan based around your blood type
  • BMI:Body Mass Index (BMI) is a measure of body fat based on height and weight. BMI is used to classify whether a person is normal weight, over weight or obese. For further details click on BMI in the tools section of simplyweight.
  • BMR:Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) is the amount of energy expended when the individual is laying completely at rest, after sleep, in the post-absorptive state.
  • Body Contouring:Reshaping the body through cosmetic surgery. Excess skin and fat deposits may be removed from certain areas of the body, such as the thighs and the upper arms.
  • Body Image:The way someone thinks they look physically and how they feel about that. It is also the way they think other people perceive them.
  • Bowel: The intestines. Part of the alimentary canal between the stomach and the anus.
  • Bowel Movement: The egestion of faeces. The body waste is passed through the rectum and anus.
  • Bowel Obstruction:Where the gut is either partially or completely blocked resulting in the digestive products failure to move forward.
  • Bowel Prep: In preparation for certain surgeries, patients are required to have an enema so that their bowels can be cleared of faecal matter.
  • Brachioplasty:A surgical procedure where the loose, sagging skin underneath the upper arms is removed. Also known as an arm lift.
  • Breast Lift:A cosmetic procedure in which the breast is pulled up to reduce sagging.
  • Breast Reduction:A surgery in which the size of the breasts are reduced. This may be done due to back pain caused by the large breasts.
  • Breathing Tube: A tube, which is attached to a respirator, is placed down a patient's throat to help them breathe during surgery.
  • Bulimia:An eating condition characterised by binge eating, and then great feelings of shame. This may lead the individual to induce vomiting.
  • C:  
  • C-Reactive Protein: A protein which rises in numbers when inflammation is present in the body, therefore doctors monitor CRP levels using blood tests and use it as a marker for inflammation. Abnormal levels can suggest the presence of a disease.
  • Cabbage soup diet: A quick weight loss program for 7 days. Dieters eat cabbage soup as well as other foods to help them lose weight.
  • Cafeteria diet: An experimental diet for studying obesity that allows laboratory animals (rats) access to highly palatable, energy dense foods (Junk food) that is associated with the obesity pandemic.
  • Caffeine:A mild stimulant which can be found in tea and coffee.
  • Calcium:A chemical element, which apart from being important for bones and teeth, also has a number of different roles in the human body e.g. it aids in muscle contraction.
  • Calcium Carbonate: An insoluble salt form of calcium that can be used as a calcium supplement.
  • Calcium Channel blockers: Calcium Channel blockers are a group of drugs used in the treatment of various conditions including hypertension, angina, irregular and fast heart rate, etc. The choice of calcium channel blocker is decided based on the individual.
  • Caliper:An instrument used to measure body fat.
  • Calorie: The energy required to heat one gram of water by one degree centigrade. This is also called food energy and is equal to Kilocalories (Kcal).
  • Calorie Free:Having no or very few calories.
  • Cambridge Diet: Low calorie diet. Only 415 calories a day and can go up to only 1,500. The diet is manufactured in the UK and is available in 20 countries around the world
  • Candy Cane Roux syndrome: This is usually seen in patients who have had gastric bypass surgery as a weight-loss procedure. When you have 'Candy cane' Roux syndrome, you may have abdominal pain, more so in the upper abdomen (epigastrium). People also suffer from increased burping and occasionally have lack of appetite, nausea and vomiting after eating. Symptoms are worse after consuming carbonated drinks. Some people have problems when they sleep on their belly.
  • Cannula:A thin tube inserted into the body to drain fluid or administer medicine.
  • Capillary:Capillaries are the smallest blood vessels which connect arterioles and venules (other blood vessels).
  • Carbohydrate:An organic compound and important nutrient made of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen, which is essential in the diet. The recommended dietary allowance of carbohydrates in the diet is 300 grams per day.
  • Carbohydrate Addict's Diet: Is based on the theory that 75% of overweight people suffer from addiction for high carb foods due to the pancreas producing too much insulin which leads to weight gain
  • Cardiologist:A doctor who specialises in cardiology. The heart; its function and diseases.
  • Cardiovascular:Pertaining to the heart and blood vessels.
  • Cardiovascular disease (CVD): CVD includes heart attack, heart failure, angina, stroke and all other diseases of the heart and blood vessels. The risk of some one having CVD is more commonly seen among smokers, people with high cholesterol, high blood pressure, obesity, diabetes, kidney disease and those with a family history of these conditions.
  • Cardiovascular System:This is the group of organs and tissue that transport blood and lymph around the body. It is also known as the circulatory system.
  • CAT Scan:A scan that uses cross-sectional images to produce 3-D images of parts of the body.
  • Cataract:A condition where the lens of the eye becomes cloudy and causes vision to become blurred. This can be a symptom of diabetes.
  • Catechin:Catechins are a form of flavonoid found in a few teas, fruits, chocolates and wines. They are linked with having a variety of health benefits such as weight loss.
  • Cellulite: Deposits of fat under the skin which produce a dimpled effect on the skin.
  • Cerebrovascular disease:Cerebrovascular disease is a group of disorders affecting the blood vessels supplying the brain. It can cause ischeamic stroke or heamorrhagic stroke.
  • Chafing:The rubbing together of two things, causing soreness and pain. For example, her trousers chafed her skin because they were too tight.
  • Chamomile Tea:A type of tea that can help soothe your stomach.
  • CHD: Coronary Heart Disease (CHD). CHD risk includes the risk of death, and non-fatal CHD, including silent myocardial infarction, angina and coronary insufficiency (acute coronary syndrome).
  • Chest X-Ray:An image of the chest and structures within it to help identify abnormalities such as pneumonia , lung diseases and cancer. These are usually required before surgery.
  • Child bearing: The process of having a baby and giving birth to a child
  • Cholecystectomy:Surgery where the gall bladder is removed.
  • Cholesterol:Cholesterol is a fatty acid known as lipid. It is mostly produced in the liver from the food we eat and utilized for various functions of the body. Cholesterol in excess can have deleterious effects.
  • Chronic:When something, such as a condition, lasts for a long time.
  • Cirrhosis: A liver disease where the cells die, the liver becomes inflamed and fibrosis of the liver tissue occurs.
  • Clinical Trial:The testing of a new drug or treatment.
  • Co-morbid conditions: Co-morbid conditions mean the presence of other diseases or disorders in addition to the primary disease or disorder.
  • Colon:A section of the large intestines which is situated between the caecum and the rectum.
  • Colonoscopy:A procedure where a tube with a camera at the end is directed through the colon/large intestine so that it can be inspected for any problems.
  • Colostomy:An operation where part of the colon is attached to a hole at the surface of the body so that faecal matter can pass into an external bag.
  • Coma:A state of unconsciousness where an individual does not respond to any external stimuli.
  • Comatose:The state of being in a coma (unconscious and unresponsive to external stimuli).
  • Comorbidity:The presence of two or more disorders at the same time. For example, being obese and having sleep apnoea.
  • Complex Carbohydrate:A compound made up of lots of sugars, which are released slowly in the body when consumed.
  • Compliance:The act of following medical advice. For example, adhering to healthcare recommendations after a bariatric procedure has been carried out.
  • Complication: A condition or damage that arises during the treatment process of a current condition.
  • Congenital:Present from birth. For example, a congenital heart defect would imply that an individual had that heart defect their entire life.
  • Congestive cardiac failure: Congestive heart failure is a condition in which the heart is not strong enough to pump the blood effectively around the body, causing fluid to collect in the lungs and body tissues, causing congestion. It is a long term condition.
  • Congestive Heart Failure: When the heart is not strong enough to pump an adequate amount of blood around the body. Symptoms may include build-up of fluid, weakness, fatigue, and shortness of breath.
  • Consent:Consent is the principle that a person must give their permission before they receive any type of medical treatment. Consent should be voluntary and must be given after all the information required is provided by the health care.
  • Constipation:The lack/difficulty of bowel movement, which may be due to hardened faeces.
  • Consultation:A meeting with a doctor to discuss a medical condition.
  • Contraception:Devices which are used for birth control (i.e. to prevent impregnation).
  • Contraindication:A reason/condition under which a medicine should not be administered or treatment given.
  • Coping Mechanisms:Techniques or behaviours that help us deal with a feeling or situation. For example, someone may eat a lot of sugary foods to make themselves feel better when they are sad.
  • Copper:A chemical element required for a variety of different reasons by the body, e.g. needed for metabolism and by the nervous system. A copper deficiency can cause fatigue, light-headedness and be accompanied by anaemia.
  • Copper Toxicity Syndrome:An excess of copper in the body which can lead to low blood pressure, vomiting, vomiting blood, jaundice (a symptom of which is yellowish skin), and over a long time, damage to organs such as the liver and kidney.
  • Coronary:Pertaining to the blood vessels that surround and supply the heart.
  • Cortisol:A hormone produced by the adrenal gland which is important in the functioning of the immune system. Also known as hydrocortisone.
  • Cosmetic Surgery:Surgery in which parts of the body are reconstructed or repaired to improve appearance. An example would be a breast lift. Also known as plastic surgery.
  • Cranberry Juice:A juice which is thought to help prevent bladder and urinary tract infections.
  • Cravings:A strong desire for something. For example, having cravings for chocolate cake and sweet foods.
  • Creatintine:Creatintine is a chemical waste molecule that is generated from muscle metabolism. Creatinine is produced from creatine, a molecule of major importance for energy production in muscles.
  • CVD Risk: Cardiovascular disease risk (CVD risk) is estimated by using Framingham 1991 10-yrs risk equation and it gives information about 10-yrs risk of fatal and non-fatal strokes, including transient ischaemic attacks and 10-yrs risk.
  • CVD risk is low:Not over weight. Your score is less than 10% so there is a less chance.
  • D:  
  • Deep Venous/Vein Thrombosis (DVT):A blood clot may form due to immobility in a deep vein in areas such as the legs, arms or neck. These can be very serious as they may move from these positions and cause complications.
  • Deficiency:An inadequate amount (not enough).
  • Defill:It is important that although a gastric band is restricting the stomach, it still feels comfortable. If it is too tight, an individual may experience discomfort, regurgitation, heartburn and find it difficult to swallow.
  • Degenerative Joint Disease:A disease where the cartilage between joints degenerates and causes pain during movement as the bones rub together. Excess weight can add excess pressure, resulting in degradation at a faster rate. Also known as osteoarthritis.
  • Delayed Gastric Emptying:A condition where the stomach takes longer than usual or is unable to empty its contents. Also known as gastroparesis.
  • Delirium:A state where an individual is mentally confused. They may experience a fever, hallucinations, disorientation and be less responsive than usual to their environment.
  • Deoxygenated:Blood that does not have a supply of oxygen.
  • Desirable Body Weight:The healthy weight that an individual is expected to be based on factors such as their height.
  • Diabetes:A set of metabolic diseases in which the body cannot control glucose levels in the blood or water levels for various reasons. It can be classed into different types.
  • Diabetes Insipidus:An uncommon metabolic disease which causes a dehydration, thirstiness and large amounts of urination. It is caused by a deficiency in the hormone vasopressin, or a loss of sensitivity to it which affects kidney function.
  • Diabetes Mellitus:The common form of diabetes which can be split into Type 1 and Type 2. In type 1, the autoimmune system mistakenly attacks the beta cells of the pancreas, preventing the production of insulin to control blood glucose levels. People with this condition need insulin to survive. In type 2 diabetes pancreas does produce insulin but not enough to overcome insulin resistance.In both types of types if not well controlled people may have excessive thirst, frequency of passing urine and weight loss.
  • Diabetic Coma: When abnormal glucose levels lead to a diabetic individual to fall into a coma an unconscious state where they are unresponsive to external stimuli.
  • Diabetic Ketoacidosis(DKA):DKA is an acute life-threatening complication of diabetes. It usually occurs in Type 1 diabetes but can also occur in type 2 diabetes in certain circumstances. DKA occurs due to absolute deficiency of insulin in the body.
  • Diabetic Polyneuropathy:The damage of nerves due to diabetes.
  • Diabetic Retinopathy:High glucose levels from diabetes mellitus can cause blood vessels in the retina to be damaged, leading to a range of sight problems.
  • Diagnosis:The identification of a condition or disease.
  • Diarrhoea:Many loose, watery bowel movements.
  • Diastolic Blood Pressure:Blood pressure (BP) when the heart is resting and produces the lowest pressure (diastolic). Normal blood pressure levels for healthy adults are around 120/80 mm Hg.
  • Diet:Eating only certain foods in order to lose weight.
  • Dietary Supplement:An addition to a diet, often in the form of pills, to make up for a missing/insufficient element. For example, vitamin tablets.
  • Dietician:A healthcare professional who is an expert in food and nutrition.
  • Dilation:To become wider. For example, blood vessels dilate to help cool down the body.
  • Disease:Dysfunction of part of the human body which causes particular symptoms to arise.
  • Distend:Swelling due to internal pressure. For example, the abdomen can become distended.
  • Diuretics:Diuretics are a class of drugs that increases the amount of water that you pass out from your kidneys. There are a variety of diuretics which works by different mechanism and used in different conditions include heart failure.
  • DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid):An acid in the shape of a double helix which contains the genetic information in cells.
  • Dopamine:A neurotransmitter that is important in the central nervous system.
  • Drain:A device used to draw out liquid from the body during surgery.
  • Driving and hypoglycemia:Hypoglycemia is a main hazard for driving. It can occur in people who are on insulin, drugs or both. DVLA has issued strict rules on this subject and all individuals should be aware on these rules.
  • Dry mouth:Dry mouths are a common reaction to weight loss surgeries. It is important to keep taking in fluids, and start drinking water again once approved by the doctor in charge.
  • Dukan diet:A weight-loss diet which consists of four phases: Attack, cruise, consolidation and stabilisation. These represent the conversion of a 100% protein diet into a balanced diet.
  • Dumping Syndrome:A condition that can occur after weight loss surgery where the ingested food e.g. sweets or fatty foods, travels through the digestive system too quickly, resulting in diarrhoea. Symptoms may include nausea, light-headedness.
  • Duodenal:Relating to the duodenum, which is the part of the small intestine found immediately after the stomach.
  • Duodenum:The part of the small intestine found immediately after the stomach.
  • Dysfunction:When something in the body functions abnormally.
  • Dyslipidaemia:An abnormal level of lipids or lipoproteins in the blood.
  • Dysmetabolic Syndrome:A group of medical conditions which tend to occur simultaneously and increase the risk of developing heart disease. These involve: obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes and hypertension.
  • Dysphagia:Difficulty in swelling which may be due to pain.
  • E:  
  • Echocardiogram:An ultrasound scan of the heart to produce images to make sure the heart is functioning correctly.
  • Egestion:The excretion/getting rid of waste from the body through the anus.
  • eGFR:estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR). Normal eGFR is approximately around 100mls/min/1.73M2. eGFR is normally based on age, sex, race of the patient and also depends on serum creatinine levels.
  • Electrocardiogram (ECG):A graphical recording that shows the electrical activity of the heart. This can show doctors a patients heart rate, the hearts rhythm, and the condition of their heart muscle.
  • Empty Calories:Calories that are gained by eating food with very little nutritional value. These are usually found in processed food.
  • Endocrine:Relating to the direct secretion of hormones into the blood stream.
  • Endocrine System:A system of glands which secrete hormones into the blood directly, and help regulate body functioning.
  • Endocrinology:A medicine specialty that deals with endocrine glands and hormones.
  • Endogenous:Inside the body.
  • Endoscopy:A procedure where an instrument is used to observe the internal organs.
  • Enema:An injection of fluid into the rectum to help clear the bowel of faecal matter.
  • Energy Expenditure:The amount of calories (energy) that a person burns.
  • Enzyme:Biological substances that increase the speed of reactions.
  • Epidemic:A widespread outbreak of a disease e.g. the increasing levels of obesity in England.
  • Epididymis:A narrow coiled duct that connects the back of the testes to the vas deferens duct.
  • Erectile dysfunction:Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a condition in which the affected individual is unable to get or maintain an erection sufficient for satisfactory sexual intercourse. ED is a common condition, usually occurs in men 40years of age.
  • Excess weight loss %: The percentage of Excess Weight Loss (%EWL) is a term normally used to estimate weight loss after bariatric surgery. The %EWL will depend on the definition of ideal body weight (IBW).Weight lost divided by initial excess weight and multiplied by 100 gives you the percentage excess weight lost. For example your intial excess weight is 50 pounds(your current weight is 300 pounds and ideal weight is 250 pounds). You have lost 25 pounds. Your percentage excess weight loss is 25 divided by intial excess weight, multiplied by 100, that is 50%. So the percentage of excess weight loss is 50.
  • Excessive Weight Loss: During an attempt to lose weight, it is important to do so at a healthy rate and thereafter maintain the weight you have lost. Continuing to lose weight beyond your ideal body weight is unhealthy and can be dangerous. Occasionally after bariatric surgery people may lose excess weight and should seek help from your doctor.
  • Excretion:The process of defecation/expelling waste, such as faeces, from the body.
  • Exercise:Physical activity to improve or maintain fitness.
  • Exogenous:Outside the body.
  • F:  
  • F plan diet:Is a low-fat, high-fiber diet. You eat high dietary fiber foods which fill you up quickly, so you dont eat too many high calorie foods which leads to weightloss.
  • Face Lift:Cosmetic surgery where the skin on the face is stretched to remove wrinkles and produce a younger appearance. Also known as a rhytidectomy.
  • Fat:A substance composed of fatty acids and lipids. Fat insulates the body, cushions organs to protect them from harm, and store energy. However, an abnormally high level of fat in the body can lead to a variety of problems.
  • Fat Flush Plan: Is a cleansing diet, low carbs, restricted calorie diet which will boost metabolism, decrease water retention and aid to weight loss
  • Fat Free Mass (FFM):The parts of the body which are not made up of fat e.g. the organs, muscle, bone and skin.
  • Fat Smash Diet: 90 days, four phases and it does not involve counting calories, you eat what you are told.
  • Fatigue:Exhaustion/Feeling extremely tired.
  • Fatty Liver:A surplus of fat deposits in the liver tissue.
  • FDA:FDA stands for Food and Drug Administration. FDA is an agency of the United States Department of Health. FDA is responsible for regulating and supervising food safety, dietary supplements, medications and medical devices. All new drugs should be approved by FDA before they are marketed and widely used by the public.
  • Fibrates:Fibrates are a group of drugs used to reduce blood levels of cholesterol. There are a variety of fibrates available in the market and the choice of a particular fibrate is decided by the health care professional.
  • Fibre:These are the carbohydrates that cannot be digested. Fibre is thought to lower cholesterol and glucose levels in blood, and to prevent constipation.
  • Fibrinolysis:The breaking down of fibrin in blood clots.
  • Fobi Pouch:This is a gastric bypass procedure, where a band at the top of the stomach pouch restricts the amount of food and the speed at which the food can pass through it for a long time period.
  • Food Diary:A book in which you record what you are eating and when to help keep track of your everyday diet.
  • Food groups: The 5 food groups are: Fruit and vegetables Bread, rice, potatoes, pasta and other starchy foods Meat, fish, eggs, beans etc Milk and dairy products Empty calories(Alcohol, chocolate etc)
  • G:  
  • Gall Bladder:A small organ which stores bile which it secretes into the intestines to help aid with the digestion of food (in particular, fat).
  • Gallstone:Small, solid masses which form when in the gall bladder harden. These can cause nausea, yellowness of the skin, pain in the abdomen and pain in other areas of the body. However, at times they also cause no symptoms to arise.
  • Gastrectomy:Removal of part of the stomach through surgery.
  • Gastric:Relating to the stomach.
  • Gastric balloon:a balloon which is placed in a patients stomach so that they feel full and stop eating too much.
  • Gastric band:a surgical implant device used to help a person lose weight.
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  • Gastric bypass surgery:treatment for those who are extremely obese lose weight.
  • Gastric Pacemaker:A device which uses electrical impulses to produce the feeling of being full. Also known as an implantable gastric stimulator (IGS).
  • Gastrointestinal Leak:A complication that only occurs in 1-2% of procedures where the food being digested leaks from the digestive system.
  • Gastrointestinal System:This is the digestive system involved in processing food through the body. Parts of it include the mouth, oesophagus, stomach and the intestines.
  • Gastroparesis:A condition where the stomach takes longer than usual or is unable to empty its contents. Also known as delayed gastric emptying.
  • Gastropathy:Gastropathy means disease of the stomach. It is a complex condition with a number of neuromuscular dysfunctions of the stomach, including abnormalities of stomach contractility.
  • Gastroplasty:Surgery which reduces the size of the stomach.
  • Gene:A piece of DNA which codes for certain characteristics.
  • Genetic:Pertaining to genes or hereditary conditions.
  • Gestation:The state in which a woman has a developing foetus or embryo in her uterus. Also known as pregnancy.
  • Gestational Diabetes:When diabetics continue to have abnormally high glucose levels during pregnancy.
  • Get your portion size right and start losing weight:Get your portion size right and start losing weight
  • Ghrelin:A hormone which stimulates the feeling of hunger. It is produced by the cells in the lining of the stomach.
  • GI Diet: Eating plan based around the Glycemic index. Separates different types of dietary carbohydrates according to how rapid the blood glucose levels are inside the body
  • Gland:An organ which produces and secretes certain substances into the blood directly or through ducts. For example, the pancreas is a gland which secretes the hormone insulin into the blood.
  • Gliptins:Gliptins are a group of oral blood glucose reducing drugs used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. These drugs act by inhibiting dipeptidyl peptidase-IV enzyme, which usually degrades glucagone-like peptide in the blood circulation.
  • Glitazones:Glitazones are a class of oral blood glucose reducing drugs used in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes. Pioglitazone and Rosiglitazone are the two drugs available in the market at the moment and selection of these drugs is done.
  • GLP-1 analogues:Glucagone-like peptide-1 analogues (GLP-1 analogues) are a group of drugs used to reduce blood glucose in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. GLP belongs to a group of peptides called Incretin produced by L-cells.
  • Glucagon:A hormone which promotes glycogenolysis (the breakdown of glycogen into glucose). It is produced by the alpha cells of the islets of Langerhans.
  • Gluconeogenesis:The production of glucose from compounds other than carbohydrates.
  • Glucose Tolerance Test:A test which can help identify diabetes. Glucose is consumed by an individual and, after some time, blood levels are checked to see if the glucose levels of the blood have been regulated properly by the body.
  • Glycaemic Index:A measure of the effect carbohydrates in a specific food have on glucose levels in the blood
  • Glycogen:A storage form of glucose found in the muscles and liver.
  • Glycogenesis-lysis:The formation of glycogen from glucose.Breakdown. For example, Glycogenolysis is when glycogen is broken down into glucose.
  • Glycogenolysis:The breakdown of glycogen to produce glucose.
  • Grazing:Eating snacks/small amounts of food throughout the whole day.
  • Gynaecomastia:Enlarged mammary glands in males, causing the appearance of female breasts.
  • H:  
  • Haematoma:A collection of blood which causes swelling.
  • Haemoglobin:A protein found in red blood cells which attaches to oxygen molecules so that they can be transported around the body.
  • Haemoglobin A1C:A type of haemoglobin that is used to monitor glucose levels in the blood. It is also called glycated haemoglobin.
  • Haemorrhage:Uncontrolled bleeding from a ruptured blood vessel.
  • Haemorrhagic Stroke:A stroke caused by the rupture of a blood vessel which disrupts blood flow to the brain.
  • Hair Loss:It has been noted that after certain procedures, such as gastric bypasses and duodenal switches, hair thinning was present in some patients. However, once the weight loss steadies, the amount of hair loss also decreases.
  • Harcombe diet:The harcombe diet was developed by Zoe Harcombe, who is a professional nutrition expert. The harcombe diet is about eating better and doing whatever you like, so eating real whole foods.
  • HbA1C:Red blood cells are present in the blood stream. These cells are made up of a molecule called Haemoglobin. Glucose sticks to these haemoglobin molecules to form a glycosylated haemoglobin molecule called Haemoglobin A1C.
  • HDL-C:High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-C). It transports cholesterol from peripheries back to the liver where it is excreted via bile or re-utilized. It is believed that high level of HDL-C protects against cardiovascular.
  • Healthy Weight:When an individual has a body mass index of 18.5 to 25.
  • Heart: The organ made up of four chambers responsible for pumping blood, and what it carries e.g. oxygen, around the body's. The right side of the heart takes blood to the lungs to refresh the oxygen supply, and the left takes this oxgenated blood passes through blood vessels to all the bodys tissues.
  • Heart Attack:The obstruction of blood flow to the heart, causing part of its muscle or tissue to die. Also known as a myocardial infarction.
  • Heart Murmur:A sound that can be heard between heartbeats caused by blood passing back through heart valves that do not close properly.
  • Heartburn:A burning feeling in the chest caused by the reflux of acids from the stomach into the oesophagus. It is also known as acid indigestion.
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  • Hernia:An organ or body part which protrudes through the tissue around it, forming a bulge.
  • Herniation:The formation of a hernia (An organ or body part which protrudes through the tissue around it, forming a bulge).
  • Hiatal Hernia:A hernia that is found in the stomach or through the diaphragm.
  • High Density Lipoprotein:Protein which removes cholesterol from cells and the blood, hence preventing obstruction of blood flow.
  • High risk foot:High risk foot is a condition in which the foot is at risk of ulcers and amputations. The foot is considered at high risk if the individual has poor glycaemic control, peripheral neuropathy, peripheral vascular disease.
  • Homeostasis:The constant maintenance of balance in an internal system. For example, temperature can be regulated by our bodies by sweating, or dilating blood vessels.
  • HONK (Hyper Osmolar Non Ketotic) coma:Recently, the term HONK is replaced by HHS (Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar State) as some patients may have ketonuria and does not usually cause coma. HHS is an acute life-threatening complication of Type2 diabetes.
  • Hormone Imbalance:Abnormal levels of a hormone which affecting the functioning of the body.
  • Hunger:The feeling of needing to eat food.
  • Hunter gatherer: Is a specific kind of lifestyle, hunt and collect plant food rather than growing crops
  • Hydrogenation:A process where unsaturated oil has hydrogen atoms added to it to produce harder substances such as butter or margarine.
  • Hyper-:A prefix which means over/an excess of. For example, hypocalcaemia means abnormally high calcium levels.
  • Hypercapnia:An unusually high level of carbon dioxide in the blood.
  • Hyperglycaemia:An abnormally high level of glucose in the blood.
  • Hyperinsulinemia:Abnormally high levels of insulin in the bloodstream.
  • Hyperlipidaemia:An abnormally high level of lipids or lipoproteins in the blood.
  • Hypertension:This is the medical name for raised blood pressure. Hypertension occurs when blood is forced through the arteries at an increased pressure. Anyone can develop hypertension, but certain factors like smoking, obesity, diabetes, family.
  • Hyperthermia:An abnormally high body temperature.
  • Hypertrophy:An abnormal increase in the size of an organ or in tissue.
  • Hypo-:A prefix which means under/low. For example, hypothermia means an abnormally low body temperature
  • Hypocalcaemia:This is a calcium deficiency, which means low calcium levels in the blood. This can lead to abnormal muscle contractions in the body, arrhythmias, and small bruised spots (caused by small broken blood vessels).
  • Hypoglycemia:Hypoglycemia is the term used to indicate if the blood glucose drops below 4mmol/L. Hypoglycemia can cause a variety of symptoms including hunger, anxiety, excessive sweating, tremors, impaired concentration, confusion.
  • Hypoglycemic unawareness:Hypoglycemic unawareness is a condition in which the affected individual does not get any of the symptoms associated with hypoglycemia.
  • Hypopnoea: A sleep disorder in which an individual breathes so shallowly that their body does not get enough oxygen. There is partial cessation of breathing for atleast 10 seconds resulting in their body getting only 50% of the oxygen required.
  • Hypotension: This is the medical term used for low blood pressure. People can have symptoms like dizziness, light headedness with hypotension. This the level of blood pressure at which some one feels unwell as their brain does not adequate blood supply. Hypotension may be due to loss of blood due to injury or bleeding. Hypotension may also be due to other conditions like adrenal insufficiency or infections.
  • Hypothalamus:A part of the brain that control the autonomic nervous system and controls homeostasis of the body.
  • Hypothermia:An abnormally low body temperature.
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  • Ibuprofen:This is a NSAID (a non-steroid anti-inflammatory drug) which is used to relieve pain and reduce fever.
  • Ideal Body Weight:The healthy weight that an individual is expected to be based on factors such as their height.
  • Ileum:A section of the small intestine situated between the jejunum and the caecum.
  • Immune System:A system which protects the body from infection and disease.
  • Impaired Glucose Tolerance: Abnormally high blood glucose levels, but not high enough to be diagnosed as diabetes. Impaired Glucose Tolerance(IGT) is diagnosed with a fasting plasma glucose (FPG) <7 mmol/l(125mg/dl) and an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test(OGTT) between 7.8mmol/l(140mg/dl) and <11.1 mmol/l(199mg/dl).
  • Implantable Gastric Stimulator (IGS):A device which uses electrical impulses to produce the feeling of being full. Also known as a gastric pacemaker.
  • Impotence:Sexual dysfunction in which a man cannot have or maintain an erection.
  • Incidence:The frequency of a disease occurring.
  • Incision:A cut into the body.
  • Incisional Hernia:A surgical incision may leave an area of tissue weak as the cut may not heal properly, the abdominal organs may then protrude in this area, causing a bulge. Surgery is required to deal with an incisional hernia.
  • Indication:A reason to administer medicine or give some type of treatment.
  • Infection:The invasion and damage of the body by harmful microorganisms.
  • Infertility:Being unable to produce offspring.
  • Inflammation:A reaction of body tissues that results in swelling, pain and heat.
  • Ingestion:The consuming of food.
  • Initial excess Weight:The extra weight an individual carries compared to thier ideal body weight.To calculate initial excess weight, find out your ideal body weight for your sex, age and height. Subtract your current weight by your ideal body weight. For example if your ideal body weight is 250 pounds and your current weight is 300pounds, your excess weight is 50 pounds.
  • Injection:When a fluid is introduced into the body by a syringe.
  • Inpatient:A patient who receives treatment while being admitted at a hospital.
  • Insulin:A hormones produced by the pancreas which controls glucose levels in the blood.
  • Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus:Now known as Type 1 Diabetes. In type 1 diabetes mellitus, the autoimmune system mistakenly attacks the beta cells of the pancreas, preventing the production of insulin to control blood glucose levels.
  • Insulin Pen:A device that diabetics can use to inject themselves with insulin to help regulate their glucose levels.
  • Insulin Pump:A device which automatically administers doses of insulin to a diabetic individual to help regulate blood glucose levels.
  • Insulin Resistance:When the hormone insulin is less effective in regulating glucose (sugar) levels due to desensitisation of insulin receptors.
  • Intermittent:Happening at irregular times.
  • Internal Hernia:When an organ protrude through a hole inside the body. For example, the intestines can get caught/tangled in holes of the stomach lining.
  • Ischaemia:Insufficient blood flow to parts of the body due to the blockage of a blood vessel.
  • Ischaemic Heart Disease:A disease where a blockage causes insufficient blood flow to the heart muscle. This may lead to chest pain, angina pectoris or heart failure.
  • Ischaemic Stroke:A stroke caused by the obstruction of blood flow in a blood vessel that was going to the brain.
  • Islets of Langerhans: These are cells that are found in the pancreas. There are two forms alpha cells, which produce insulin, and beta cells, which produce glucagon.
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  • Jejunum:The middle part of the small intestines.
  • Jenny craig:Is a weight loss and weight Management Company. The weight management program combines nutrition and physical activity with counselling.
  • Juvenile Diabetes:Also known as Type 1 Diabetes. In type 1 diabetes mellitus, the autoimmune system mistakenly attacks the beta cells of the pancreas, preventing the production of insulin to control blood glucose levels.
  • K:  
  • Ketogenic diet:The ketogenic diet consists of high fat, low carbohydrate and moderate protein diets.
  • Ketotic Breath: When a person's breath smells slightly sweet due to the breakdown of proteins during weight loss.
  • Kidney Disease:The high levels of glucose from diabetes can cause the kidney to overwork, and after a long period of time of overworking, kidney damage can occur.
  • Kidney failure:Kidney failure or renal failure is a condition in which kidneys fail to function adequately. It can be acute or chronic kidney failure. Chronic kidney failure is usually caused by the chronic conditions like diabetes.
  • Kidneys:Two organs in the body which filter the blood and remove waste materials, e.g. urea, to produce urine.
  • Kilocalories (Kcal):A unit of energy that is equal to one calorie.
  • Kilogram:A unit of weight. 1kg is roughly equal to 2.2lbs (pounds).
  • L:  
  • Lactose:A sugar which is present in milk.
  • Lap Band Surgery:Also known as Gastric Banding.An adjustable band is placed around part of the stomach which restricts the speed at which food enters it. It gives the patient a sensation of being full so that they eat less.
  • Lap-Band Erosion:A complication of lap-band surgery, where the stomach starts to grow into the band. This means that the band will have to be removed. Symptoms may include weight gain, and infection or an abscess at the port site.
  • Laparoscope:A thin tube with a camera that is inserted into the abdomen through an incision to observe the organs inside or aid in surgery.
  • Laparoscopic Procedures:Very small incisions are made to allow the passage of a laparoscope (a thin tube with a camera on the end) into the abdomen.
  • Large Intestine:An organ found after the small intestine which is part of the digestive system and involved in absorbing water before the waste is expelled from the body.
  • Last Supper Syndrome:Before weight loss surgery, an individual may binge eat in order to have their last meal as they falsely feel they will not be able to eat again.
  • Laxative:A drug which promotes bowel movements/the evacuation of faeces.
  • LDL-C:Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDL-C). It transports cholesterol from the liver to the peripheries. Evidence show that high level of LDL-C increases risk of cardiovascular diseases.
  • Lean Body Mass:The weight of the body excluding the weight of the fat.
  • Leg Devices:Devices which fit around your legs and have air pumped into and out of them to produce a massaging effect. These lower the risk of deep vein thrombosis (blood clots in the legs).
  • Leptin:A protein produced by fatty tissues and it also regulates fat storage in the body.
  • Libido:Level of sexual desire/drive.
  • Lighter life:Lighter Life is a weight loss company that works through small group meetings, advice on diet and exercise.
  • Lipase:Lipase is an enzyme (involved in the process of digestion) which breaks down fat.
  • Lipid:Fatty acids which can be dissolved in organic solvents, but not in water.
  • Lipids:Lipids are a class of molecules includes fats, waxes, sterols etc. Generally, the term lipid is also synonymously used for fats. Lipids form essential component of the cell membranes, store house of energy.
  • Lipoprotein:A protein which binds to fat and transports it in the blood.
  • Liposculpture: Liposculpture is a cosmetic procedure,where a cannula(small metal tube) is moved repeatedly to loosen the fat so as to be removed later by a vacuum pump. You will be asked to wear pressure garments for at least six weeks after this procedure. Liposculpture should not be done in people with dimpling or cellulite.
  • Liposuction:A cosmetic surgery in which fat beneath the skin is sucked out. It is also known as a lipoplasty.
  • Liraglutide(Victoza):Liraglutide an injection used in the management of Type 2 diabetes is also in the process of being approved by FDA.
  • Liver:An organ found in the abdomen which processes blood e.g. the liver removes toxins from the blood, secretes bile to break down fats and also produces essential proteins.
  • Liver Failure:When the liver is unable to function normally. Liver failure can occur after duodenal switches and biliopancreatic diversions due to malnutrition, which is why follow up visits to the doctor are essential.
  • Long QT Syndrome:A congenital heart defect where the delay between contractions is too long, which can lead to heart palpitations, fainting and sudden death.
  • Lorcaserin:Lorcaserin is a new drug (selective serotonin receptor agonist) and has an action on the appetite centre.The FDA is scheduled to decide by 27th June2012 on the final approval of lorcaserin.
  • Lose weight with very low calorie diets:Lose weight with very low calorie diets
  • Low carb diet:A diet which restricts you having a lot of carbohydrates.
  • Low Density Lipoprotein:Protein which transports cholesterol, but deposits extra cholesterol in blood vessels which can lead to the obstruction of blood flow.
  • Lower Body Lift:A surgical procedure where the skin is pulled up to stop sagging and reshape the thighs and buttocks.
  • Lumen:The central space inside blood vessel of the body.
  • Lung:An organ where gaseous exchange occurs, allowing a fresh supply of oxygen enter the body and waste gases to be expelled.
  • Lymphatic Drainage:The practise of draining lymph fluid which may have collected.
  • Lymphedema:A collection of lymph fluid which causes swelling in parts of the body.
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  • Macro vascular Disease:The disease of the larger blood vessels.
  • Macular oedema:Macular oedema is a condition in which there is an occumulation of fluid and protein material within the retina in the macular area. It can affect vision and hence, opticians refer the patient to the eye doctors.
  • Maculopathy:Maculopathy means changes in the eye around the macula (centre of vision) caused by abnormal leakage of fluids and swelling, resulting in loss of vision.
  • Magnesium:Magnesium is an element required by the body for various reasons e.g. to regulate heart contraction, calcium absorption, nerve function and to keep bones strong.
  • Malabsorption:When the nutrients from food are not absorbed properly by the body.
  • Malignant obesity hypoventilation syndrome:Malignant obesity hypoventilation syndrome (MOHS) is a term used to describe all the ill effects of being severely obese. People with this condition have obesity related hypoventilation, high blood pressure,diabetes, enlarged heart,heart failure, high cholesterol/triglycerides and problems with lung(pulmonary hypertension) and liver( Hepatic dysfunction). Doctors donot always associate these medical conditions with severe obesity.It is important for doctors to consider these medical conditions in people who are morbidly obese. Weight loss can improve and occasionally cure these medical conditions.
  • Malnutrition:The failure or proper nourishment either due to not eating enough, not eating the right foods, or not being able to process what has been eaten.
  • Maternal Obesity:When a pregnant woman is overweight or obese. This can impact the development of the foetus.
  • Medifast Diet: Diet targeted for moderate to extremely obese individuals. Portion controlled, low fat, low carbohydrate and low calorie plan
  • Menopause:The period of time after a woman ceases to menstruate (have her periods).
  • Metabolic syndrome:Metabolic syndrome is the term used to describe a group of medical conditions which increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. According to World Health Organization, an individual is said to have metabolic syndrome.
  • Metabolism:The chemical reactions that occur to maintain life. For example, respiration.
  • Metformin:Metformin belongs to Biguanides, which are a class of oral blood glucose reducing drugs used in the treatment of type2 diabetes. Metformin decreases blood glucose by reducing glucose production in the liver.
  • Micro albuminuria:Microalbuminuria is a condition in which the kidney leaks abnormally high levels of protein (albumin) into the urine. The condition is usually diagnosed from elevated levels of albumin in a spot sample (30 to 300mgs/L).
  • Mini gastric bypass:This a laproscopic weight loss surgery which is less complicated than the standard Roux en Y gastric bypass surgery. Procedure involves dividing the stomach and creating a pouch. This pouch is anastamosed to a loop of bowel. The food passes from the pouch to the small bowel and mixes with the gastric juice in the small intestine. For further details please see our surgery section(newer techniques)
  • Minimally Invasive Surgery:Operations which are conducted through small incisions into the body. An example would be laparoscopic procedures as thin tubes are inserted into the body through small cuts.
  • Mitral Valve:This is a valve made up of two flaps between the atrium and ventricle on the left side of the heart. The mitral valve prevents backflow of blood, and it is also known as the bicuspid valve.
  • Morbid Obesity: When a person's BMI (body mass index) is above 40.
  • Mortality:Is the risk of death of members in the population due to many factors such as age, gender, health etc.
  • Mortality Risk Score:A score to measure the likelihood of death which is found by considering a persons heart rate, BMI, fitness level, blood pressure, and whether or not the individual smokes or has diabetes.
  • Motivation:The reasons for doing something. For example, his motivation to lose weight was that he wanted to be healthier.
  • Multi-Disciplinary Team:A group of doctors and from different specialties who discuss a patient/case to produce a diagnosis and treatment.
  • Muscle:Muscle is an organ that is made up of nerves, blood and lymphatic vessels, connective tissue and muscle tissue - which it contracts and relaxes to allow movement.
  • Myocardial Infarction:The obstruction of blood flow to the heart, causing part of its muscle or tissue to die. Also known as a heart attack.
  • Myocardial infarction (Heart attack):Myocardial infarction is a serious condition in which the heart muscle suddenly looses its blood supply. This leads to variable damage to the heart muscle. It is generally called as heart attack.
  • Myocardial Ischemia:A disease where a blockage causes insufficient blood flow to the heart muscle. This may lead to chest pain, angina pectoris or heart failure.